However, a comprehensive overview of the various works and results in different scientific areas is still lacking.
Anthropogenic Platinum-Group Element Emissions : Their Impact on Man and Environment
This book covers all aspects of anthropogenic PGE emissions and their consequences for man and environment. The interdisciplinary approach is substantiated by contributions from the fields of environmental geosciences, analytical chemistry, biology and occupational medicine. The articles mirror the actual status of scientific work and discuss environmentally related topics. Modern analytical methods for various environmental matrices as well as models of the current and future geochemical behaviour of PGE in the environment are presented.
Their Impact on Man and Environment. Fathi Zereini , Friedrich Alt.
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Since the implementation of catalysts containing platinum-group-elements PGE for the control of vehicle emissions in , a controversial discussion has begun on PGE emissions and eventual consequences for the environment. However, a comprehensive overview of the various works and results in different scientific areas is still lacking. This book covers all aspects of anthropogenic PGE emissions and their consequences for man and environment. The interdisciplinary approach is substantiated by contributions from the fields of environmental geosciences, analytical chemistry, biology and occupational medicine.
Since the mid mulative increase of the concentrations of these metals s Pt, Pd and Rh have been used in catalytic con- in road dust and in soils along heavily frequented roads e. Although some E-mail address: The relatively low contents of organic compounds, we de- main reason for the comparatively low number of stud- veloped a microwave digestion procedure for animal ies on PGE in the biosphere is that the precise quan- tissues to be used in combination with SF-ICP-MS.
Pt in environmental samples [9,17—19]. However, the lack of certified biological standard reference ma- terials with very low concentrations of PGE entails 2.
Experimental interlaboratory comparisons to assess the quality of an analysis using different analytical procedures. A The sample material used fish liver and mussel comparison of inductively coupled plasma mass spec- soft tissue derived from a series of exposure stud- trometry ICP-MS and atomic absorption spectrom- ies see . European eels Anguilla anguilla and etry AAS for the determination of Pt at ppm-levels Zebra mussels Dreissena polymorpha were exposed in animal tissues showed very good agreement to ground catalytic converter material and road dust, .
At lower concentra- water. The liver was homogenised with a dispersing tions 0. Aliquots were used for the different analytical samples like blood, urine, hair and excreta [22,24,25] procedures. To minimise interferences, this method requires a complete digestion of the sample material. Dilutions were made with 1 vol.
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Solutions including wash solu- ferent matrices . Beside its capacity to resolve tions were prepared with doubly distilled water. With this system 12 individual samples can in human blood  and urine , using UV pho- be treated simultaneously. Since UV WW of fish liver was weighed into a perfluoralkoxy photolysis is restricted to fairly simple matrices, with PFA vessel ml , adding 1.
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Australia Spray chamber Impact bead suprapure and 2. Aliquotes of Cones Ni Coolant gas Argon, The PFA vessels and flasks were cleaned before use by rinsing three times with 1 vol. The resolution necessary to resolve 2.
Anthropogenic Platinum-Group Element Emissions : Fathi Zereini :
Detection limit and recovery operation conditions are summarised in Table 2. The The instrumental detection limit was determined as digested sample solution was diluted 1: Calibration was performed by The procedural detection limit was calculated as the standard addition, adding 4 ml of the respective stan- three-fold standard deviation of concentrations found dards to 1 ml of the sample solution, resulting in a in 15 procedural blanks, which were prepared in the final dilution factor of 25 3 vol.
Concentrations in each sample were prior to the digestion with different amounts of Pt, calculated by fitting linear regression lines to the using diluted PGE standard solution and treated in a points defined by the spiked concentration values similar manner as described above.