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At the same time Thayer set up an intensely grammatocentric managerial regime. Even though West Point had under cadets when he took over, he set up a line-and-staff system which separated the Academy into two divisions, which were then sub-divided down into companies, with strict reporting always in writing in continual relays of communication up and down each line of command.

Thayer thus established himself as a separate locus of authority. He became a ghostly presence, hardly ever seen by most of the cadets, knowing them principally through the individual files kept meticulously by his clerk. In their everyday lives he 'entered the picture only as a court of last resort' Fleming, In many respects the Thayer system recalls Foucault's 'panopticism', as a system with the power to see into every aspect of individual life while the source of its vision remains invisible.

But it was specifically a grammatocentric form of panopticism, whose modus operand! The net outcome of Thayer's innovations was that disciplinary power and disciplinary knowledge could be simultaneously internalized in a new and potent way. The graduates of the Thayer system were both highly trained in the scientific disciplines particularly maths and engineering and in the wider uses to which writing, grading and examining could be put to engender human productivity and accountability.

Having learned to learn under this unprecedented disciplinary human success system they could go out to translate its practices into the business arena. West Point graduates and the genesis of managerialism Chandler has tended to play down any West Point connection, noting He concludes that the military model had only an 'indirect impact on the beginning of modern business management' and that 'there is little evidence that railroad managers copied military procedures' We would agree with Chandler insofar as these pioneers were not translating military procedures as such: Chandler's global conclusion appears at the least premature: Whistler now appears to have played a major innovatory role since the first known railroad line-and-staff system is traceable directly to his tenure as Superintendent of the Western Railroad between and Tyler at the Springfield Armory merits a similar accolade.

For the development of an economically effective system of labour and cost control now appears attributable to a time-and-motion study he undertook in 50 years before Frederick W. Taylor's scientific management , a study which for the first time established norms of production and unit cost. But the point we stress is that both these initiatives, for all their surface differences, draw on the disciplinary practices of Thayer's West Point: Thayer's organizational structure in Whistler's case, and his calculative system of accountability in Tyler's.

As noted by historians of technology e. First, it is now apparent that Lee's innovations did not produce economic breakthrough. Paul Uselding's detailed re-analysis of Springfield's production and cost figures shows that there were virtually no efficiency gains in costs or productivity over the period; breakthrough actually occurred only after Uselding, , What has happened in the Springfield Armory case is that technological innovation has been mistakenly equated with managerialism and so the detail of what took place has not been properly assessed.

The available records on the National Armories are fortunately copious e. Deyrup, ; Smith, , which makes it possible to distinguish the differences in the technological and business histories to a high degree. And what the detailed evidence shows is that Lee, while pursuing technological improvement, ran the workforce in a traditional and premodern way, aiming at maintaining good stewardship i.

Such a system set up relays of reciprocal obligation passing from individual to individual, but Lee never developed it to integrate plant-wide financial and performance data and thus coordinate performance across the whole workplace. In the second place there was no tracking of time taken per piece manufactured or even enforcement of regular hours: Thus there was no way of establishing norms of performance or pay what the average worker should achieve or earn. Instead Lee followed a very different approach, setting his wage rates 'in line with but slightly above wages at other armories' with further cost-of-living adjustments Deyrup, Thus over the period up to wages tended to rise while productivity remained static, as evidenced for instance by a suspicious uniformity in each barrel-welder's monthly production, which as Deyrup drily puts it However, those are the innovatory principles given shape by Tyler's time-and-motion study, as recorded in Tyler's own Autobiography Once there he quickly saw the slack built into Lee's regime.

Tyler then goes on Early in the month of February I commenced my examination of the Springfield Armory, and during six months. I kept watch in hand, timing every operation into which the manufacture of the musket was divided In this way I came to know accurately what the workmen could earn daily at ten hours' service under the Government prices, and I was enabled to determine In this inspection the power of disciplinarity finally penetrates into the workplace, as Tyler deploys the practices he had internalized at Thayer's West Point: The terminology used, as reported by Deyrup For the Board's report: From questioning the workforce and examining the Armory's pay-roll the board made recommendations as to appropriate piece rates and the number of pieces which should constitute a good day's work.

Miller and O'Leary, ch. There remains, of course, the historical problem pointed out by Useld-ing. Why, if this system was such a breakthrough, did cost and productivity efficiencies not occur until ? The reason, as Tyler's 'Autobiography' makes clear They wrote to the Secretary of War and even made a direct appeal to President Andrew Jackson, to such effect that the Board's recommendations were overruled. So the old piece-rates and work practices remained in place.

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In Tyler resigned his commission, recognizing that he was not now going to achieve rapid promotion. However with the inauguration of President William Harrison in a reformist agenda was introduced, a new military Superintendent was appointed and a three-man 'civilian' Board of Enquiry was appointed to review the work practices at Springfield. Its recommendations, adopted in January , were directly drawn from the Board. Fixed hours of work were introduced, a time-log was kept of the hours actually worked by piece-rate workers and the piece-rates were set according to the tariff, thus succeeding in 'reducing the wages to the point previously recommended' Tyler, The productivity and cost outcomes were dramatic, as is highlighted in the figures for the barrel-welding shop.

Here, then and not in Lee's earlier uniformity initiatives, lies the previously-hidden genesis of modern single-unit management. Line-and-staff structure on the Western Railroad Meanwhile, over the same period but in a different surface way, the Thayer system was penetrating railroad business culture as Tyler's classmate George Whistler developed the first known line-and-staff system. Again, though, the chronology has been not quite clear and the provenance of the system has failed to command much attention.

According to Chandler cf. As a result in only six weeks Whistler set up a management system with clear lines of authority, structured round a central staffoffice plus three operating divisions. Transportation and Machinery divisions had their separate heads while he personally had direct line responsibility for the Roads division in addition to running the central Staff Office, Within each line information flowed up and down through three regional managers who in turn had local managers below them.

In Chandler's words, Whistler succeeded in 'fixing definite responsibilities for each phase of the company's business, drawing solid lines of authority and communication for the railroad's administration, maintenance and operation' However, though Whistler's success is not in doubt, the details of the story require reconsideration.

First re-examination of the archives shows that Whistler introduced the system not in 1 but two years earlier when the railroad first opened. For the initial Regulations he drew up in already had the three divisions, plus the detailed division of responsibilities between each line, and the central Staff Office.

So he does not invent the system following the crash, instead he just streamlined it then, to eradicate confusion and overelaboration in the command chain. But that chronological change then raises in acute form the issue of how this organizational system, without apparent business precedent, came so easily to Whistler's hand. Chandler's own preferred solution was that it was a response to technological innovation such as the telegraph On the other hand, there is to date no evidence of any prior analogous system in use in any business context.

By an intriguing coincidence, when in Thayer was choosing two cadets to form his initial Staff Office, he chose Whistler as his Cadet Staff Sergeant. Thus it was not just on the Western Railroad that Whistler was a pioneer: Hence as at the medieval moment, it becomes apparent that there are direct but overlooked links between the educational and economic worlds. The time-and-motion study and the line-and-staff system have the same genealogy, leading back to Thayer's West Point system.

What was established under the guise of 'administrative coordination' was a new power of writing, examination and grading. The more visible and decisive step comes in the s on the Pennsylvania Railroad. We return once more to Chandler's history. Following the earliest innovations there were, he argues, in the 1 s two further significant structural developments One was the building of a separate Traffic Department to administer the getting and processing of freight and passengers.

The other was the creation of a central office manned by general executives. In both these developments the Pennsylvania made the largest contribution. The Pennsylvania Railroad was begun in , under inauspicious circumstances. Indeed Chandler goes so far as to say So effective was their work that the Pennsylvania not only became the largest business enterprise in the nation if not the world but also was just as famous for being one of the most efficiently administered.

Not coincidentally, it is here that accounting began to move from margina-lity to centrality in business practice. The team that ran the Pennsylvania Railroad in those early years included some truly significant individuals: Scott, hired as a Station Agent in , the Railroad's Vice-President by and by appointed to be Assistant Secretary of War in charge of railroads on the Union side in the Civil War; and Scott's protege, Andrew Carnegie, hired in at the age of 17, who rose to Divisional Superintendent before striking out into an even more spectacular career in iron and steel.

In any understanding of the rise to global dominance of modern accounting-based economic power these men must play a key role: And there the person who must take centre stage is Thomson's No. For it is Haupt who introduced the first genuinely 'divisionalized' organizational structure formally published in the Organization Manual and who also set up the Traffic Department Ward, The chronology is as follows. Haupt's earlier career had been as a surveyor, bridge designer and principal of an Academy: At the same time he created a General Transportation Office concerned solely with 'regulating all the other offices on the line and in securing accuracy and uniformity in their accounts' Ward, At the same time Haupt imposed a new regime of calculability drawing particularly on accounting data.

From he was including summary but detailed operational data in the Annual Report, data which ;was derived from the accurate and timely information which poured in on;a daily basis to the central Traffic Office Ward, As a result Haupt was soon effectively managing by the numbers. Among his accounting based decisions Ward notes the following. In he costed the toll sheet issued by the directors and suspended it because it did not cover full costs.

And in strategic costing vein, while Thomson tended to favour a fixed 'high toll on a relatively low volume of freight', Haupt, having studied the freight volume, 'analysed the fixed and variable costs Haupt's initiatives appear to mark the watershed in the emergence of managerialism, for here we see, combined with the earlier calculative technologies promoting accountability and productivity, the accounting technologies to promote systematic cost control and profitability.

By the company was keeping ' basic sets of accounting records' Chandler, With Carnegie then exporting the Haupt management system into manufacturing, and with other railroads having to follow the system in order to compete and survive, the rules of US business discourse were soon definitively changed. Businesses began to be reconstructed in the image of the proactive, future-oriented organization, managed by the numbers and thoroughly grammatocentric. But why should Haupt be the man to produce this integrated system for managing by the numbers? However he is from the next generation, graduating in the Class of by which time the full Thayer system had been developed, including the sanction of expulsion for those over demerits.

Intriguingly that system, by Haupt's own admission, marked a major turning point in his life. He entered West Point in aged only 13, and spent his first two years in card-playing and novel-reading and collecting his share of demerits caring, as he says, 'but little how nearly I approached the limit if it was not exceeded: As humiliation loomed he underwent a conversion experience and resolved, in his own words, to 'turn over a new leaf, renounce cards and novels and apply myself to study'. From that moment on he became a total devotee of the disciplinary way of life, beginning with his own self-discipline.

Indeed, the private academy he ran in Gettysburg before joining the Pennsylvania was itself run on the Thayer principles, right down to the demerit system for conduct. Thus once more we find the educational connection. And in this case the special significance of the Pennsylvania Railroad, both in itself and as borne out by the subsequent success of Carnegie, is that it brings to fruition the kind of accounting based managerial system that can survive any one individual. Haupt in fact severed his links with the Pennsylvania in But he had already put together a system, based now on grammatocentric structure, a general commitment to calculability and a specific commitment to the constant use of accounting, which no longer needed him in person.

The railroads could have operated well enough with only rudimentary organizational structures, without the line and staff distinction, without an internal auditing staff. The same of course applies to Thayer's original disciplinary system.

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In every case there is more than a purely economic-rational discourse, for there is more at stake than just an economically optimal outcome. What we are confronting instead is a new kind of power-knowledge regime which made possible the new power of economics, not the other way round. That is why we see the emergence of modern accounting not as the 'practical' response of men faced with new entrepreneurial challenges, sensibly devising ways to capture the data needed for rational economic decisions - for in that sense no 'practical' man would have invented modern accounting practice, the outputs of which are not at all what is obviously needed for such purposes e.

Instead, we see modern accounting emerging as a powerful new way of 'writing the world' which like the modern examination embodies the power relations and knowledge relations of a disciplinary and self-disciplinary culture. The power-knowledge apparatuses of accounting have continued to expand: Now accounting increasingly penetrates into the public governmental world as well as the private sector, for as John Meyer has pointed out Weber's high bureaucracies are giving way to accounting-led organizations which both give more space for calculative individual initiative and locate the power over individuals in more dynamic flexible control systems which ultimately empower them to discipline their selves in a constant play of accountability and responsibility.

Meanwhile at the social level, accounting, like fields from medicine to plumbing Bledstein, , has taken advantage of the new written graded examination system to effect the classic shift into modern professionaliza-tion. Before the end of the nineteenth century, the first professional bodies were established, all, like the Institute of Chartered Accountants in England and Wales Jones, , quickly setting up qualification systems based on taking written, graded examinations. However that is a minor and local problem. The larger picture is that accounting - as a form of social power, as an apparatus of knowledge-power, as an academic field, and as a technology embedded within the self-has established itself as a practice seemingly indispensable, something we can neither avoid nor simply transcend.

Instead, with both accounting and examination, we find ourselves bound up in a continual process of trying to reduce their inadequacies and arbitrary effects, yet always, in so doing, extending their power and scope. Assessing the impact of agricultural trade liberalization General field: Source text - English Distr. The opinions expressed in this study are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the UNCTAD secretariat. Acknowledgements Wojciech Stawowy provided helpful assistance in supplying trade statistics and in converting specific rates into ad valorem equivalents.

Agricultural liberalization - A double-edged sword Export-dependent SIDSs fear erosion of preferences Agricultural production and trade patterns of SIDSs Agricultural liberalization - A double-edged sword Small island developing States SIDSs 1 face a number of structural problems that render them less competitive in agricultural trade than many other developing countries.

The United Nations, and in particular UNCTAD, has been studying the specific problems of island developing countries since the s with a view to sensitizing the international community to their distinctive needs, and, more recently, to their specific vulnerability Encontre, On average, the ratio of merchandise imports to gross domestic product GDP is 47 per cent higher in SIDSs than in other small economies, while the ratio of their agricultural trade exports and imports combined to GDP is the highest amongst all countries.

Larger countries can count on both their domestic and international markets to foster economic growth, but SIDSs have to rely on their export markets as the only avenue for reaping the benefits of economies of scale and capital accumulation Streeten, The constraints faced by SIDSs, which hamper their competitiveness in international markets are well documented. Because of their small land base and population, SIDSs have limited ability to exploit economies of scale in agricultural production.

While both the United Nations and the Commonwealth Secretariat make use of population as the benchmark for determining smallness, there is no officially agreed international definition of smallness. The Vulnerability Report, of the Commonwealth Secretariat uses as a threshold a population of 1 million subsequently increased to 1.

SIDSs are net agricultural importers and depend on a small number of agricultural exports to pay for their food import bill. Similarly, small size restricts the capacity of SIDSs to diversify exports. The need to secure certain scale economies in production, distribution and other economic activities, together with the aim of taking advantage of some export market opportunities have, to varying degrees, led SIDSs to specialize in a narrow range of agricultural products.

This has exposed them to instabilities in world markets. Insularity and remoteness also give rise to problems associated with transportation of agricultural imports and exports. SIDSs tend to import and export fragmented cargoes of agricultural products, leading to high per unit shipping costs. They do not have the flexibility of road transport in handling small shipments. Additional costs might arise, in some instances, with the need to provide indivisible and expensive public goods to support agricultural production. This is bound to be particularly expensive given the limited production involved.

Higher costs mean a loss of competitiveness, which in turn frustrates diversification. Finally, environmental degradation as well as proneness to natural disasters and resource depletion may have serious implications for agriculture in SIDSs. Due to their small size, the depletion of arable land for economic development has had a disproportional effect on agricultural production. Limited freshwater and poor water management, along with population pressures and an expanding tourism industry, have led to water scarcity, further jeopardizing agricultural production.

Offsetting these inherent disadvantages to some extent are various preferential market access arrangement enjoyed by many SIDSs. These provide duty-free access to specific developed country markets. The European Union EU market for sugar is of greatest significance in this regard. Liberalization is a double-edged sword for SIDSs.

On the one hand, maintaining and obtaining market access is very important for trade-dependent economies. On the other hand, liberalization also provides additional competition, particularly if preferential access is eroded. While some SIDSs will be able to swim with the tide of liberalization, others will need help to adjust.

Against this background, the objective of this study is twofold: This is of particularly interest, given that liberalization may erode the preferential access currently provided to SIDSs. In Section I the paper reviews the main characteristics of the agricultural sector in SIDSs, focusing on trade flows and constraints that affect their competitiveness in agriculture.

An overview of the preferential trading arrangements available to SIDSs in their main markets and the importance of these schemes for their exports is also provided. The simulations show the potential impact of liberalization on prices, exports, government revenues, quota rents and overall welfare. While SIDSs as a whole may be worse off under certain assumptions, policies to improve their position are examined. It is characterized by a combination of large-scale commercial production of cash crops and a relatively small sector that produces food crops, primarily for local consumption.

The most important food crops grown are starchy staples, mostly root and tuber crops. Rapid urbanization has lead to these staples being replaced by imported cereals FAO, a. The agricultural trade balance of selected SIDSs is shown in table 1. SIDSs import a wide variety of agricultural products, particularly cereals, meats, dairy products, and animal and vegetable fats.

These agricultural imports consume 20 per cent of their total export earnings. For some SIDSs, their agricultural import bill exceeds total export revenue, for example, for Cape Verde by per cent, Comoros by per cent, Haiti by per cent and Tuvalu by per cent. Table 3 compares the relative importance of agricultural trade of SIDSs with that of other country groups developed, developing and LDCs.

As exporters, SIDSs' agricultural exports are concentrated in such products as raw cane sugar, coffee, cocoa and coconut. For many SIDSs, these few agricultural products are the main source of export earnings. On average, agricultural exports and imports by SIDSs account for 24 per cent and 14 per cent respectively of their total merchandise exports and imports; this shows a considerably higher dependence of their trade on the agricultural sector than the developing country average.

In the case of Sao Tome Principe over 90 per cent of agricultural export earnings are derived from cocoa alone. Apart from concentration of the type of exported products, SIDSs' agricultural exports also show a concentration of the destinations, further increasing their vulnerability to external shocks. As shown in table 4, the EU receives more than half of the total agricultural exports of SIDSs; it is the most important market for African SIDSs, accounting for 87 per cent of their agricultural exports.

Similarly, the United States and Canada though to a much lesser extent than the EU are important markets for SIDSs, receiving 29 per cent of their agricultural exports. The Caribbean islands agricultural exports to these markets, range from 50 per cent in the case of Jamaica to 20 per cent for other, smaller, Caribbean Islands.

Japan captures only 3 per cent of total agricultural exports of SIDSs, but it has become an important market for the Pacific SIDSs, absorbing more than 6 per cent of their exports. This figure is substantially greater than the exports of SIDSs to: First, a preferential margin may provide substantial "quota rents" to SIDSs' exporters. The EBA provides LDCs with duty-free treatment for all agricultural products except bananas, rice and sugar until , including very sensitive products such as beef, dairy products, fruit and vegetables fresh as well as processed , cereals, starch, vegetable oils, confectionary, pasta and alcoholic beverages.

The United States The United States recently renewed its GSP programme applicable until , which provides duty-free access for 5, tariff line items to over beneficiary countries and territories. An additional 1, lines have been added to the list of eligible products for LDC recipients. This is no longer the case, as all dutiable products that were previously granted only a limited margin of preference or were subject to quantitative limitations are now entirely liberalized for LDCs.

The preferential tariff margin increases - up to an average of 35 percentage points - as the MFN tariff increases. However, these large tariff margins apply only to a small share 6 per cent of the total agricultural exports of SIDSs. Canada Canada provides two distinct preferential market access regimes that are of immediate relevance to SIDSs' agricultural exports: A further expansion of the preferences to LDCs came into effect on 1 January , allowing for duty-free and quota-free access for all but a number of "sensitive" products. However, preferential tariff margins on those products are generally low, as corresponding MFN tariffs are already low - MFN duties on more than 53 per cent of SIDSs' agricultural exports are already zero.

As these exports consist mainly of fresh fruits and vegetables, the Caribbean exporters seem to benefit more from their geographical proximity than from the tariff preferences they receive. In other words, for the majority of agricultural exports some 94 per cent, including those exports already receiving duty-free MFN , SIDSs receive "empty preferences", either because of zero MFN duties or because similar preferential treatment is given to other developing countries.

Japan Trade preferences for SIDSs as for other developing countries are made available under the Japanese GSP scheme, which was recently reviewed and extended for another decade, until 31 14 However, the ad valorem equivalent of all rate components estimated by the United States International Trade Commission is reported to be at 3. Kitts and Nevis, St. Preferential GSP tariffs applicable to developing countries range from duty free to 20 per cent reduction in MFN duties. LDC beneficiaries enjoy duty-free entry for all products covered under the GSP scheme plus an additional list of products.

Preferences to LDCs have been improved by increasing the number of tariff items for duty-free and quota-free access specifically available to all 49 LDC exports as long as they request them. This implies that further agricultural trade liberalization, might not have a significant effect on the preferences granted to SIDSs in this market, but it might result in new trade opportunities for all those SIDSs products still affected by high MFN duties. The impact of liberalization will depend on a number of factors. In terms of a geographical grouping, further MFN tariff cuts may result in a much faster erosion, if not elimination, of preferential tariff margins available to the Caribbean island countries than those to other SIDSs, as the preferences received by the Caribbean SIDSs on some 70 per cent of their exports are empty.

However, the impact of the preference erosion on the trade flows of the Caribbean SIDSs would be on average less dramatic, as they are already exposed to a certain degree of competition with other developing country exporters, either on a MFN basis or within a GSP scheme of an importing country.

They will, however, loose quota rents by the reduction of out-of-quota or outquota tariffs. Further, should these preferences be considerably reduced as a result of the negotiations on agriculture, or be legally challenged by other WTO member s ,19 adjustment costs arising from the preference erosion to these preference-dependent countries may be significant, as they have been rather sheltered against world competition.

Second, whether preferential tariffs are "linked" to or "de-linked" from MFN rates may result in different impacts upon the values of preferences after MFN tariff cut. Beneficiaries of such preferences are more likely to retain tariff advantages not only over MFN tariffs, but also over other preferences providing a less extensive degree of market access treatment. This might apply to such products as palm, cigars, fruits and vegetables e. Where preferences to SIDSs are de-linked from the corresponding MFN rates, as in the case of the GSP scheme of the US, the only difference among various preferential schemes is the extent of the product coverage rather than the preferential margins provided.

Third, the recent initiatives undertaken to provide better market access for LDCs and countries in the sub-Saharan African region have yet to fully materialize. As they are creating additional and substantial preferential margins for certain SIDSs and for certain products, the negative impact in terms of preferential margins coming from further trade liberalization might be somehow mitigated. Finally, although the current preferences are wide, they could be expanded further. Many of those sensitive products namely meat and diary products, cheese, tomatoes, mandarins and some cereals are subject to a combined tariff which is made up of an ad-valorem component and a specific-rate component.

Preferential market access for those products normally takes the form of an elimination of the ad-valorem component and a reduced level of a specific-rate component whose ad-valorem equivalent can go up as high as 80 per cent. Similarly, for certain categories of processed agricultural products under the Harmonized System HS - chapters 4 milk and milk products , 17 sugar and sugar confectionery , 18 cocoa and cocoa preparations , 19 processed foodstuffs , 20 beverages and 21 miscellaneous edible preparations - the EU maintains a system of a technical tariff that includes the so-called agricultural component i.

However, it is the specific component that constitutes the bulk of the protection and not the ad valorem part. In addition, around 15 products, mainly fruits and vegetables, as well as some processed products such as fruit juices, are subject to the entry price system EPS. To explain briefly how the EPS works, it is useful to think of it as a dual system where two separate sets of tariffs apply according to a core variable that is represented by the entry price.

Applicable tariffs are either ad valorem or specific duties. Under this system, as long as the c. However, if the import price falls below the entry price, an additional duty is charged on top of the general one, up to a maximum tariff level also bound. In reality, the system is slightly more complex, since there are several entry prices for the same product, and for each of them a different additional duty applies.

Indeed, and although set a priori, entry prices change according to seasons, being lower during the harvest season in the EU, so as to provide maximum protection to EU producers. Bearing in mind the functioning of the entry price system, this preferential margin may end up being the most effective, since these countries will be effectively able to undercut the supply price of all the other suppliers.

The same study suggests that the welfare gains to some groups of developing countries, particularly those in sub-Saharan Africa and Latin America, that are dependant on non-reciprocal preferential treatment, may be substantially less than the gains to such regions as Oceania, South-East Asia and North Africa.

Insignificant welfare gains, or indeed losses, to SIDSs from multilateral agricultural liberalization may be due to: It is thought that agricultural liberalization would raise world prices of temperate agricultural products more, relative to prices of tropical products, leading to an increase in food import bills for SIDSs, which import temperate products and export a narrow range of tropical products.

At the same time, as MFN tariff cuts reduce the margin of preferences, importers are likely to seek supplies from low-cost countries. For example, assuming exporters of sugar to the EU are receiving EU prices, any lowering of those prices will make other exporters, such as Brazil, more competitive. This section examines the likely impacts of agricultural trade liberalization on SIDSs under different liberalization "scenarios", with a view to identifying liberalization "modalities" that would at least "compensate" for possible negative impacts from liberalization, if not creating welfare gains.

The model distinguishes between bound and applied tariffs, as well as between inquota and outquota tariffs on products under tariff rate quotas TRQs. It can be used to assess the impact of policy changes on quota rents, forgone and received. As quota rents are an important contributor to agriculture in SIDSs, this feature of the model is desirable in applications discussed here. Unlike a general equilibrium model, ATPSM is confined to the agricultural sector, and does not account for interactions with other sectors of the economy.

As a result, capital and labour used in agricultural production cannot be reallocated across non-agricultural sectors in response to a shock. It is assumed that this limitation will have little bearing on the empirical results, since SIDSs have few alternative sectors for resources to shift into from agriculture. ATPSM can simulate and evaluate the various agricultural trade policy changes that may be suggested in the WTO negotiations on agriculture, such as: ATPSM is both simple and complex. Its simplicity derives from linear demand and supply curves.

The complexity follows from the policy detail in the model. For this reason it is necessary to explain in the next section how the model works. Next we look at the initial data, particularly the distribution of rents. We then postulate some likely liberalization scenarios, examine the results and the implications.

Imports below the quota level are levied at rates that are substantially lower than the corresponding outquota MFN tariff rates. During the Uruguay Round, the quota quantities were either set as 3 per cent, growing to 5 per cent of the level of domestic consumption observed during the base period, or they were based on historical trade flows.

The introduction of a two-tier tariff system created a new category of economic effects - tariff quota rents. A quota rent is the difference between the outquota and inquota tariffs times the value of the quota, as illustrated in figure 3. Assuming the quota, q, is full and the domestic price reflects the higher outquota tariff, t2, exporters with quota can supply goods over the lower tariff, t1, and receive the higher domestic price.

Once the quota is filled, outquota imports are taxed at the higher tariff rate and no further rents are generated. Clearly, reduction in outquota tariffs reduces the quota rent. An important question concerns the distribution of the rents between exporters, processors, distributors, taxpayers and consumers, on which the effects of liberalization largely depend. Rents may be captured by the government by auctioning rights to import or export, but often they accrue to other groups, depending on how quotas are allocated.

There is, however, no one uniform method for the administration of TRQs; thus there is no general rule on how quota rents and tariff revenues will change with trade liberalization. In this study, it is assumed that 27 The definition of small island developing States is somewhat debatable. For the remaining products, the rents are assumed to be shared equally between exporters and importers. The rents not captured by exporters are assumed to accrue eventually to government revenue in the importing country, instead of being transferred to consumers in the importing countries.

To estimate the actual size of a quota rent, it is necessary to have observations of global quotas, bilateral quotas, inquota and outquota tariff rates, world market prices and imports. To determine how the rents are allocated between countries requires some judgment. The size of the global quotas i. The model uses bilateral trade flows to estimate the distribution of global quotas among countries. Ideally, the quota fill rate should determine the domestic price, so that if the quota is unfilled, domestic prices should be determined by the inquota tariffs, and prices should be high only if the quota is filled or overfilled.

However, it is often observed that quotas are unfilled but domestic prices are nonetheless high. This may be because administrative constraints prevent the quotas being filled. More to the point, countries with high domestic prices are unlikely to accept their erosion by a shift in the supply of imports.

As a result, the assumption here is that the outquota tariffs or possibly the applied tariffs determine the domestic market price. This implies that global quotas should not exceed imports, and quotas are reduced to the level of imports where the data suggests this is necessary. The calculation of tariff revenues and rents in the model is based on these assumptions. The assumptions made above imply that changes in inquota tariffs and TRQ quantities will not have price and production quantity effects, as these instruments are not binding. They do, however, change the distribution of rents.

Price data are from the FAO Yearbooks, using an average for the period Parameters on elasticities and feedshares are also provided by FAO. These are based on a trawling of the literature and are not econometrically estimated specifically for the model. Specific tariffs are converted to ad valorem equivalents based on unit values calculated for each country at the Harmonized System HS six-digit level. Data on trade-distorting domestic support and export subsidies are derived from the notifications submitted to the WTO.

Bilateral trade flow data for , which were used to allocate global quotas to individual exporting countries, are provided by UNCTAD.

The main drawback to using ATPSM for this study is that it does not include information on bilateral tariffs e. However, this is consistent with the assumptions that the quotas are filled and that changes in rents do not change production. The base period data of these global indicators are shown in the first two columns in table 8.

Across commodities, temperate goods are subject to relatively higher levels of border protection in developed countries than tropical products with the notable exception of sugar and bananas. Developing countries, however, may levy substantial tariffs on tropical products.

Also shown in the table are the initial values of three variables important to SIDSs: It is immediately apparent that sugar is the key commodity of interest to SIDSs, capturing more than 50 per cent of the total export revenues 29 AMAD is available to all users at: Next in importance are vegetable oils copra , coffee, cocoa and bananas. The major supplier of EU sugar imports 1. The United States imports 1. China has imports of 0. Multilateral trade liberalization will influence the level of these three variables: The next section examines the extent of such impacts and how they vary according to different trade liberalization scenarios.

Scenario 1, consisting of elements that have been proposed to the WTO negotiations on agriculture by major agricultural exporters such as the United States and the Cairns Group members, will lead to substantial agricultural liberalization. Scenario 2 is almost a replica of the liberalization approach employed during the Uruguay Round. The only difference is that in this scenario, a linear cut of 36 per cent applies to the tariffs across all products, unlike the actual Uruguay Round approach where tariffs on sensitive commodities were reduced by the minimum reduction rate of 15 per cent so long as an average cut of 36 per cent across products was achieved.

Scenario 3 focuses purely on the impact of tariff cuts. Reductions in MFN bound tariffs putting aside proposals to make reductions from the applied tariffs are likely to have the greatest impact on SIDSs through the erosion of preferences, causing reductions in quota rents. Scenario 3 is also a reasonable middle ground between scenarios 1 and 2, and will serve as a benchmark for assessment of the impact from the following scenarios 4 and 5.

Scenarios 4 and 5 are aimed at assessing whether SIDSs could be compensated for the losses stemming from preference erosion by changes in other policy variables, such as the size of the inquota tariffs or the TRQ quantities. As the quota rents are determined by i the difference between the inquota and outquota tariff rates, and ii the quota quantities, changes in one of the variables e. First, reductions in outquota tariff rates do not necessarily mean that the gap between domestic and world prices is reduced by 50 per cent.

In cases where applied tariffs are below the bound outquota rates, a 50 per cent cut in the outquota tariffs may result in a less than 50 per cent cut, or even no change at all, in the applied rates. Second, EU sugar and dairy production is assumed not to be responsive to changes in prices, due to the existence of production quotas for those products. Prices The impact on world prices for the first three scenarios is shown in table 9. The price changes are correlated with the level of distortions removed. As expected, the results shows that prices of tropical products e.

While price rises are indicative of the level of distortions, of greater interest to policy makers in SIDSs are the impacts of liberalization on export revenues, tariff revenues, changes in quota rents and overall welfare. The welfare impact is calculated based on the changes in i consumer surplus, ii producer surplus, and iii government revenues. The estimation of these data are shown for SIDSs and for the world in table Export revenues A comparison of estimated export revenues across different scenarios suggests that export revenues increase in proportion to the level of market access improvement.

Scenarios 4 and 5 do not show changes in export revenues from the benchmark, due to the assumption that changes in quota rents alone do not affect the supply decisions of the producers of the exported products concerned hence the level of export quantity remains the same. This assumption is reasonable for small changes in quota rents. The simulation results in table 10 show a wide variation in the degree of changes in tariff revenue across different scenarios.

Concerning tariff revenues at the global level, the "ambitious" scenario will lead to the smallest losses, largely because tariff revenues forgone are offset by reductions in domestic support and export subsidies.


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The continuation of spending on these government subsidies results in substantial losses in government revenues in the "conservative" and benchmark scenarios. Looking at scenarios 4 "preferential" and 5 "compensatory" , reducing inquota or outquota tariffs on SIDSs' exports involves losses in tariff revenues for importing countries equal to the gains in quota rents received by SIDSs' exporters.

The magnitude of a global loss in tariff revenues or an increase in quota rents for SIDSs is determined by the degree of rent capture. It is assumed in this study that half the loss in tariff revenues i. These revenue losses effectively arise from transfers between taxpayers and producers, and do not involve any efficiency gains or losses.

At some point, declining rents will lead to a fall in production below the quota level. A comparison of the changes in SIDSs' quota rents under the "preferential" scenario with the benchmark scenario suggests that eliminating inquota rates for all SIDSs' inquota exports does not fully offset the effect of outquota tariff reductions.

Much of this accrues to Cuba, which is the major supplier to China. The quota gains may be overestimated, as the model does not take into account preferential tariffs provided by major markets e. The initial EU inquota tariffs are 13 per cent on bananas and 2. However, China imports 0.

This accounts for much of the increase in quota rents under the preferential scenario. Welfare Putting together the various changes in prices, exports, tariff revenues and quota rents, the greater the degree of liberalization, the greater are the welfare gains to the world as a whole scenarios 4 and 5 do not change global welfare from the benchmark. A greater global welfare increase under the "tariff" benchmark scenario than under the "conservative" scenario arises from gains by developing countries as a whole, as more substantial tariff cuts by developing countries under the benchmark case increases largely due to consumer surplus increases in those countries.

Table 11 provides a breakdown of the welfare impacts of each of the five scenarios across different groups of countries. It is apparent that gains from agricultural liberalization to SIDSs are more limited compared to other groups of countries listed. Under the "ambitious" scenario, for instance, only SIDSs are expected to incur welfare losses while all other groups gain.

Welfare gains to a group of developing country agricultural importers appear to be modest - they experience gains only under the "ambitious" scenario, whereas in other scenarios import price rises and losses in tariff revenues lead to welfare losses. The major costs are borne by the developed countries, predominantly those of the European Union and the United States, which provide compensation through extended preferential access.

A breakdown of the welfare impact under the benchmark scenario - for individual SIDSs by commodity - is presented in table The largest welfare losses anticipated are incurred by Mauritius, Jamaica and Fiji. The major losses by commodity occur in sugar due to loss of quota rents and wheat, dairy products and meat due to increases in food import prices. The importance of quota rents to the welfare figures highlights the assumption about their distribution. This is unfortunate, as these have a considerable bearing on the overall results for SIDSs. Another limitation is that this model is likely to overestimate the amount of quota rents accruing to the world in general, due to the assumption that quotas are effectively filled and that outquota or applied tariffs, rather than inquota tariffs, drive domestic prices.

Rents accruing to SIDSs in particular may be further overestimated as the model does not take into account various reciprocal or non-reciprocal preferential tariffs most SIDSs receive in major markets for their agricultural exports. A final consideration is the assumption that producers don't respond to changes in rents, which further implies no trade diversion. These are reasonable for small policy changes but less so for elimination of tariffs. Preference erosion is expected to benefit low-cost producers from liberalization of markets in which they were excluded from preferential market access e.

Brazilian sugar in the EU market. Conclusions In spite of these limitations, several implications can be drawn from the results. First, preferences provide significant benefits to some SIDS members, and trade liberalization will lead to some erosion of these preferences. This will have a significant impact in some cases, particularly for those SIDSs currently enjoying quota rents.

Sugar and banana producers are likely to be the sectors most affected. Yet the magnitude of the overall impact depends on the chosen scenarios, being the highest in the "ambitious" scenario and the lowest in the "conservative " scenario. Second, the results of the simulations suggest that there is scope for these countries to be compensated. This was considered to be desirable in two distinctive ways. One possibility would be to provide inquota duty-free treatment for all those SIDSs' exports already benefiting from quotas.

However, there might be individual SIDSs currently not capturing quota rents that may be inclined to favour liberalization, as estimates indicate that if quota rents are ignored there are positive net benefits from improved market access and efficiency gains from domestic reform. Similarly, low-cost SIDS producers may find themselves shut out of markets by the import quota system and may be favoured by the erosion of preferences. According to the model's estimates, this would entirely compensate for losses in the rents.

Given the high degree of specialization by SIDSs on a limited number of products, additional preferential quotas appear, therefore, to guard beneficiaries against the erosion of preferential tariff margins and quota rents. However, this assumes that beneficiary countries are capable of filling the additional quotas. Tellingly, this particular scenario, that has been selected as a possible modality to compensate SIDSs, would have no, or very limited, effects on the welfare gains of developing countries.

Finally, compensation, if any, might be sought both within the WTO framework and bilaterally. In fact, given the high geographical concentration of SIDS exports in a few markets, there may yet be scope for improving the effectiveness of non-reciprocal preferential market access via expansion of product coverage, expansion of quantitative limits on preferential market access, or lowering of preferential tariff rates, with a view to offsetting the impacts of MFN tariff cuts.

Bibliography Briguglio L Small island developing states and their economic vulnerabilities. World Development, 23 9: The promoter and the set of DNA sequences that control transcription make up the transcriptional control region. Transcriptional control regions of DNA viruses and retroviruses were among the first to be examined experimentally.

For example, the human adenovirus type 2 major late promoter was the first from which accurate initiation of transcription was reconstituted in vitro. Subsequently, the study of viral transcription yielded fundamental information about control signals and mechanisms by which RNA polymerase II transcription is initiated and regulated.

Biochemical studies of model transcriptional control regions, such as adenoviral major late promoter, established that initiation of transcription by RNA polymerase II is a multistep process. The initiation reactions include promoter recognition, formation of an open initiation complex in which the two strands of the DNA template in the vicinity of the initiation site are unwound, and promoter clearance, movement of the transcribing complex away from promoter.

At least 40 proteins, which comprise RNA polymerase II itself and auxiliary initiation proteins, are needed to complete the intricate process of initiation. Flu symptoms General field: Be aware of your body and monitor your body temperature. Flu symptoms can come on suddenly — be sure you know your treatment and prevention options so you can be prepared. The common symptoms of the flu include: If you have one or two, it's recommended that you see your doctor. There are five main options that people use to fight the flu — vaccines, antivirals, antibiotics, over-the-counter treatments, and non-medical alternatives.

The best way to prevent or lessen the severity of the flu is to get a flu shot each fall. There are two types of flu vaccines: International Law General field: Source text - English International Law International law means public international law as distinct from private international law or the conflict of laws.

International law is the product of a threefold process initiated in the Western world: In the absence of an agreed state of truce or peace, war was the basic state of international relations. Unless exceptions were made by means of individual safe conduct or treaty, rulers saw themselves entitled to treat foreigners at their absolute discretion. Treaty law was the predominant feature of medieval international law. The observance of treaties and other engagements rested on self-interest, especially in relation to obligations of a reciprocal character, and the value attached by an obligated party to his moral credit and his respect for the principle of good faith.

With the expansion of European society the universalist spirit that imbued the naturalist doctrine of international law gave to international law the elasticity needed to adapt itself to a constantly widening international environment. The coexistence of sovereign states in a legal system postulates equality, but this equality in international law is of a purely formal character. Real influence still rests with only a handful of nations. BT-4 bonds General field: Source text - English On March 11, Global paid coupon yield on its BT-4 series inconvertible interest-bearing certified bearer bonds with obligatory centralized custody.

The BT-4 bonds sixth coupon yield rate equaled 7. The coupon yield on BT-4 series bonds in the amount of RUR 59 was fully transferred by the Company to the bond owners. Honda Fit General field: Fun to Drive The Fit features a new 1. The new engine is designed to offer the best balance of fuel economy and power. Source text - English Acura provided a one-two punch with the world debut of the all-new second-generation TSX sports sedan along with the appearance of the redesigned RL luxury performance sedan at the New York International Auto Show today. Producing hp from a 2.

Along with more torque, the new 2. The Performer shall render the Services in accordance with the timeframes indicated in Annex E hereto, subject to provisions of Articles 2. Each of these two transfer and acceptance acts shall contain a detailed list of the Design Documentation delivered under the relevant act. The pressure-loss General field: An example from this test illustrates the differences.

At a maximum blower speed corresponding to a pressure loss of Pa , approximately cubic meters of cleaned air per hour flow through the Mercedes-Benz genuine activated charcoal passenger compartment air filter. On the other hand, just and cubic meters of air per hour pass through the VEMO and MANN activated charcoal passenger compartment air filters respectively. During the last three years, Honda focused on gaining a foothold for the future, and results of such efforts have begun to show in many areas.

Argentina — In November , Honda began construction of a new automobile plant with annual production capacity of 30, units with a plan to begin operation in the latter half of As a part of this effort to strengthen sales in metropolitan areas, the new structure of Honda Cars is being established with the enlargement of existing dealership locations and opening of new locations. Laboratory data General field: Source text - English 2. Laboratory data Kamm has published the three types of studies designed to elucidate the effects of retinoids on various phases of the reproductive process.

Those studies are summarized herebelow. Additional data are also provided by the applicant. Segment I studies were designed to study the effects of the retinoids on fertility and general performance. Both male and female rats were dosed with the retinoids tretinoin, isotretinoin, etretinate ; treatment of male rats was started 60 to 80 days prior to mating, and treatment of female rats was started 14 days prior to mating and continued through parturition. In this study, the emphasis was placed on the effects of the retinoids on gonadal function, estrus cycles, mating behavior, conception rates and the early stages of gestation.

In contrast, for tretinoin and etretinate, adverse effects were noted at doses in excess of 2 and 2. The teratologic effects of the retinoids vitamin A, tretinoin, isotretinoin, etretinate were evaluated in the segment II studies.

For this purpose, retinoid administration was restricted to the critical period during pregnancy when organogenesis is known to occur. The teratogenicity of vitamin A, etretinate, and tretinoin has been reviewed. The data demonstrate that, in the rat, isotretinoin has the lowest teratogenic potential of the retinoids studied.

In the rabbit, which is generally considered to be the most sensitive animal model for producing terata, isotretinoin, is tolerated at higher doses than vitamin A, tretinoin or etretinate. In the segment III studies the retinoids were administered during the last third of pregnancy and during the period of lactation to study their effects on late fetal development, labor and delivery, lactation, neonatal viability, and growth and development of the new born. The data presented in table indicate that, in contrast to tretinoin or etretinate, isotretinoin had no adverse effects on postnatal development when given at doses which produced no intolerance toxic effects in the mother.

Translation - Russian 2. Der einzige Gesellschafter ist die juristische Person: Die Postadresse der Gesellschaft: Juni , das beim Handels- und Gesellschaftsregister in Luxemburg hinterlegt wird und bei dem der Hinweis auf die Hinterlegung am 9. Juni in Kraft tritt. Es ersetzt die vorhergehende Fassung vom 1. Der Hinweis auf die Hinterlegung dieses Sonderreglements beim Handels- und Gesellschaftsregister in Luxemburg wird am 9. Die Performance des Fonds wird in dem vereinfachten Verkaufsprospekt angegeben. Es kann keine Zusicherung gegeben werden, dass die Ziele der Anlagepolitik erreicht werden.

Zertifikate auf Aktien wie z. Anteile werden an jedem Handelstag ausgegeben. Artikel 22 Anteile 1. Die Anteile werden in Globalzertifikaten verbrieft. Alle Anteile einer Klasse haben gleiche Rechte. Artikel 23 Ertragsverwendung 1. Sofern der Mindestbetrag von Artikel 26 Rechnungsjahr Das Rechnungsjahr endet jedes Jahr am Part I contains a series of review articles written by a team of international experts on models of design, perspectives on design, design practice and design management.

Part II provides an introduction to the wealth of academic research on these topics by presenting the activities of research centres from around the world. In open state, disconnector must have visible air-gap that ensures safety of works with deenergized circuit elements. Disconnector can perform switching-on and shutdown of capacitive line currents, no-load currents of transformers and currents of low loads within the limits of natural switching capacity of contact knives of disconnector.

Disconnector is apparatus widely used in switchgears SG. It is organically connected with a wiring diagram and construction of SG. Enormous variety of circuits and constructions of SG demands the need in structural variations of disconnectors. Disconnectors may be of three types: In this project, construction with two grounding knives is chosen.

Grounding knives are carried out in the form of welded truss construction made from aluminium alloy tubes, and are provided with spring mechanism of moment compensation, created by the mass of knives. Plug contact of main contact knives is protected by the system of covers fastened on knives, and provides switching-on and shutdown of disconnector at a width of ice layer equal to 20 mm. According to the demands of safety that deenergized disconnector should meet, the location of insulators in its construction must be such, that leakage currents pass to the ground - not between the contacts of the same pole or between the poles.

Vestas believes that wind power is the best supplement to oil, gas and other conventional energy sources currently employed. To Vestas, being No. To do so, Vestas must accomplish Triple Wind power is modern energy because it is cost competitive, predictable, independent, fast and clean. The current price of one onshore kWh from Vestas is eurocents. Offshore wind is more expensive to exploit, but the difference will become smaller in line with the technological development.

This is among other things achieved through dialogue with politicians, public servants, interest groups and NGOs the world over and through advice and information to the public about the potential of wind power, both in individual markets and worldwide. The turbine output power is controlled in order to follow a pre-defined power-speed characteristic, named tracking characteristic. The electrical output power at the grid terminals of the wind turbine is added to the power losses and is compared with the reference power obtained from the tracking characteristic. DC to DC intermediate circuit consists of two converters: The control system of DC to DC intermediate circuit consists of DC voltage and current regulation and pitch control system.

The pitch angle is regulated at zero degree by pitch angle regulator until the speed reaches desired speed of the tracking characteristic. Translation - Russian 2. To solve the problem, we have proposed a framework for a dynamic and automatic traffic light control expert system combined with a simulation model, which is composed of six submodels coded in Arena to help analyze the traffic problem. The model adopts interarrival time and interdeparture time to simulate the arrival and leaving number of cars on roads. In the experiment, each submodel represents a road that has three intersections.

The simulation results physically prove the efficiency of the traffic system in an urban area, because the average waiting time of cars at every intersection is sharply dropped when the red light duration is 65 s and the green light time duration is s. Meanwhile, further analysis also shows if we keep the interarrival time of roads A, B, and C, and change that of roads D, E, and F from 1. Finally, according to the data collected from RFID readers and the best, second and third best traffic light durations generated from the simulation model, the automatic and dynamic traffic light control expert system can control how long traffic signals should be for traffic improvement.

Simulation system; Traffic light control expert system; Radio Frequency identification; Traffic congestion. The high-order harmonics will be filtered out, leaving only the fundamental. The higher the order of the filter, the purer the sine wave produced. The MAX is an 8th-order Bessel low-pass switched-capacitor filter. Its dB corner frequency is controlled by its clock frequency in a 1: If this ratio is kept constant across the entire input frequency range, the amplitude of the filter output will be independent to the frequency.

Meanwhile, the microcontroller accepts bit frequency-control signals. No matter what frequency is selected, the base square wave and the clock will maintain a 1: Thus, the circuit will generate both sine-wave and square-wave signals at the base frequency, as well as a higher 64x frequency square wave. The frequency of the sine wave is given by: Plugging these numbers back into the equation, the calculated output frequency will be The useful frequency range that can be generated by this circuit is between 5.

Translation - English 3. Operation with a summary on deposits is carried out similar to operation with a summary on current accounts See Summary on current accounts. At clicking the deposit name, panel with deposit details and buttons for possible deposit operations is opened. Current legislation restrains payments and transfers from deposit to the third parties. It is allowed to make transfers to own accounts. Depending on deposit contract, Client may make transfers and payments from this deposit only from funds, which are higher than the minimum balance.

Depending on deposit contract, Client may make additions to it in any amount and at any time. Deposit may be a cover of a credit. In that respect, it makes some sense to reissue the two simultaneously, but their original contexts could hardly be more different. In , when advance copies of McCartney were sent to journalists, they included a press sheet announcing Paul's departure from the Beatles, which had the further effect of breaking up the band.

McCartney was released a month before Let It Be, and it contained a fair amount of music that had been kicking around for some time. McCartney II, on the other hand, was released in , about a year before the breakup of Wings, a band that was never much more than a vehicle for McCartney's solo songwriting efforts. Wings had no John Lennon to play foil to McCartney.

Lennon and McCartney, as everyone knows, were the songwriting partners who made the Beatles such a titanic force in the s. By the time the band broke up, however, the partnership had been mostly dissolved for years. The two were almost always writing separately, and on those late Beatles albums, you can hear their personalities pulling apart. The separation is complete on the solo albums the two former Beatles released in Lennon's Plastic Ono Band is rough, nasty, self-absorbed, not a little narcissistic, and devoted to laying bare the rawest of emotions and memories.

It has overshadowed McCartney since its release. A well written resume that gives the employer an accurate view of your skills will help you stand out from the crowd. Here are links to some of my favorite resume tips, resume samples and free resume templates. I have also included links to some actual resumes of employees I have hired in the past for various technical companies. Ever hear the saying "you never get a second chance to make a first impression?

With only a few seconds to capture the attention of the reader and showcase your extensive skills, you need to make the most of your resume. Read on for resume tips and tricks. Spell Check and "Reality Check" Before you submit your resume, make sure you give it a spell check using your word processing software. After you spell check it, have someone else give it a quick "reality check" to make sure that the spell checker didn't miss anything and to make sure that you didn't make a mistake that your computer can't catch.

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It is important that you get a second set of eyes to look over the document that could be responsible for your next job. This is always a tough call. Some experts believe a one page resume is the perfect length. I would disagree, unless you really have few skills and experiences to share. Go into enough detail to give an accurate view of your skills, but not so long that the reader falls asleep. You do not need to list every project you have ever worked on. Summarize, but be inclusive.

Formatting Counts Have 2 versions of your resume available. One to be viewed online, and one to be handed out at in-person interviews and job fairs. Fancy formatting with pretty fonts, lines, boxes and bullet points just does not make it through on most computers. Anything you send or submit online should have very basic formatting spacing and paragraph breaks, for example.

Keywords are Key When an employer searches a database, they use keywords. In general, they expect the results to be representative of what they are searching for. This should mean a couple of things to the resume writer: A list of keywords that do not represent your expertise should be avoided. Include the Basics A technical resume should include the following information sections.

Any degrees you have completed or are working on, as well as relevant classes or certifications. Only include your GPA if it is very high. Start with the most recent. List only the technologies you know well. Have Multiple Versions If you are in more than one role or have skills that may fit more than one role you should have multiple versions of your resume available that highlight those skills.

For example, if you have years of experience as software engineer, and also have project management expertise, have two resumes: Make Your Resume Viewable Recruiters and hiring managers like to search and "source" for candidates. If your resume or bio is not someplace where an employer can find it, then they don't know you exist.

In addition to the regular job boards, consider posting your resume on personal web pages, as well as networking tools dealing with job search. Next to previous tastes "Te Amo" and "Terra Incognita", this one's a little weirder, with unspooling waves of electronic noise and multi-tracked vocal reverb weaving in and out of the tune's spindly acoustics. What "Modern Aquatic Nightsongs" does share in common with the other tracks is Cox's ruminations on the nature of love, a step away from the specific narratives that dotted Atlas Sound's previous full-lengths. Whatever the relationship that's being addressed, it sounds complicated: Then, a tangled mess of words is let loose, with one being repeated endlessly and tellingly: The album's current single, the Stargate-produced "Closer", is now at 54 on the Billboard Hot and No.

Ne-Yo is currently touring with Alicia Keys as a supporting act. Authorities consider these labels popular among neo-Nazis and view them as a sign of right-wing extremist views, which officers should not be associated with. Although Thor Steinar has strong ties to neo-Nazi groups, Ben Sherman and Fred Perry have worked hard to distance themselves from such associations. Though they are sometimes popular among these groups, they have spoken out against their ideologies and restricted outlets.

In Johannesburg today, Greenpeace Africa published its new Energy [R]evolution report which outlines how South Africa can also join in the race to a clean and sustainable energy future. If South Africa joins in, not only will it be beneficial to the climate, but it will create around , new jobs in the South African energy sector in the next 20 years, as well as bringing energy to people not connected to the grid.

If political will along with South Africa's abundance of renewable energy resources are harnessed, the country could easily become the renewable energy leader in Africa. As host of the international climate negotiations COP 17 in Durban at the end of this year, we are campaigning to make sure that the South African government makes the right energy choices to create a better and cleaner future.

To mark the occasion, Kumi Naidoo, our International Executive Director, calls on us all to take inspiration from that first Greenpeace voyage, and to demand a better future for our planet: The seeds of Greenpeace were sown 40 years ago today, when a small band of dedicated people set out to change the world, sailing from Vancouver to end US nuclear testing in the Aleutian Islands.

After four decades of putting environmental issues centre stage and achieving significant victories in defence of the planet, today we face a perfect storm of crises; economic, ecological and democratic. And none more challenging than climate change. No more can we put up with politicians squabbling over and squandering opportunities to agree on how to avert the worst ravages of climate change. We need leaders with vision, who will take bold action to curb climate change and protect those most at risk from its effects.

We need active citizens who will hold their political and corporate leaders to account. Greenpeace now has offices in more than 40 countries and on all continents, populated by activists world-wide from all cultures joining together in common cause — true warriors of the rainbow. In addition to a global presence, during those 40 years we have become an organization made up from all sectors of society and a myriad of cultures. We have scientists, lawyers, doctors, journalists, students, engineers, parents and grandparents, a myriad of disciplines necessary for founding our campaigns in science, our communications in simple language, to keep our action daring and safe and our ships at sea.

Greenpeace people understand that multinational corporations and international bodies will only respond to international pressure, applied at every level. People who understand that the pressures on our environment are transnational and the solutions are global. The Greenpeace founders proved how a small group of committed people can change the world, through peaceful protest and by bearing witness.

This should be an inspiration for what we can all achieve if all of civil society works together through coalitions and alliances to demand a better future for our children, and for our planet. Hopefully, in forty more years we will have averted climate chaos, ecology and economy will be balanced with considerations of equity and our job will have been done. In the meantime, Peace, and thank you to all our supporters and activists, who make Greenpeace what it is today.

Translation - English How to behave during interview So, you entered the office and… yeah, right, said hello. Do not sit down without permission, nor do you plump into the proposed armchair. Do everything calmly, confidently and with dignity. It is also indicative of your attentiveness and your habit of consistency. Besides, this is the best way to occupy hands and not to show agitation. Your speech must be prepared in advance.

Nevertheless, impromptu with touches of humour is always welcome. It is greatly helpful to get more familiar with a company, which you are applying to. Parading such knowledge during interview will raise your chances greatly. Be prepared to answer unexpected questions. The most unexpected ones. Sometimes such questions are asked just to see how you react, not to get an answer.

If relevant, just smile and try to say something witty. Anyway, the answer is not so important, as how quick is your reaction and your agile mind.